Business information: UK withdrawal from the EU - Brexit

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The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, known within the UK as the EU referendum, took place on 23 June 2016. This page lists some of the resources that provide information on the process and progress of the UK leaving the EU, commonly referred to as "Brexit". It is by no means comprehensive as it was compiled as a "Top Tips" by people attending workshops I recently ran on the topic. The resources are good starting points for information on Brexit.

EU referendum results

EU referendum results

The voting areas for the EU referendum were not the parliamentary constituencies. There were 382 voting areas across twelve regions using the same boundaries as used in European Parliamentary elections with votes counted at local authority level. In England the 326 local government districts included unitary authorities, metropolitan boroughs, all shire districts, the London boroughs, the City of London and the Isles of Scilly. Gibraltar counted as part of South West England. Northern Ireland was a single voting area, in Scotland the 32 Scottish councils were used as voting areas as were the 22 Welsh Councils in Wales.

Electoral Commission EU referendum results
The Electoral Commission is the independent body that oversees elections and regulates political finance in the UK. This page shows the voting totals and results by region and by area within that region. You can download the results data in full as a CSV file. There is also the Electoral Commissions assessment of the EU referendum question and their recommended amendment.

EU Referendum Results - BBC News
The BBC referendum results page and linked pages presents the same information as the Electoral Commission but in a slightly different way. There are links to the BBC news stories and videos on and around the date of the referendum.

Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 - Wikipedia,_2016
Another page showing the voting results in a variety of ways but in addition this one has links at the end to external sources reporting on the run up to the referendum and local press articles some of which show a breakdown of the results by ward.

Supreme Court judgment on prorogation-related judicial review cases

Prorogation-related judicial review cases - The Supreme Court
Links to the judgment, summary and video on demand coverage of the prorogation-related cases are available on R (on the application of Miller) (Appellant) v The Prime Minister (Respondent) and Cherry and others (Respondents) v Advocate General for Scotland (Appellant) (Scotland)


Brexit: research and analysis - UK Parliament
"Research and analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on how leaving the EU will affect different policy areas in the UK".
Brexit email alerts on updates and new content are available.

Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU - BBC News
Background information on the what has happened so far, what is happening now, what has been agreed and what needs to be agreed. There is also a long list of FAQs (frequently asked questions), many of which cannot be answered yet but some possibilities are discussed.

Brexit | Financial Times
List of FT articles and analysis on Brexit. Subscription required to read the articles..

The Guardian - Weekly Brexit Briefing
A very useful summary and update from The Guardian newspaper on what has been happening over the past week. You can sign up to receive the briefing by weekly email and there is also a Brexit Means podcast.

No-deal Brexit preparations: the leaked Operation Yellowhammer document | News | The Sunday Times
Main points behind the leaked Operation Yellowhammer document. Paywalled article.

No-deal Brexit: key points of Operation Yellowhammer report | Politics | The Guardian
Summary of the main points of Operation Yellowhammer document.

General News Search

If you are interested in seeing articles that represent a wider range of viewpoints and opinions, run a search on Brexit in Google News and Bing News . As well as the national and regional UK papers, these will also pick up stories appearing in the press in other countries.


Article 50
Article 50 is the clause in the European Union's (EU) Lisbon Treaty that outlines the steps to be taken by a country wishing to leave the EU. As well the text of Article 50, this article gives some background to the drafting of the article and debate in the UK that surrounded the legal processes needed to trigger it. See also the Investopedia article on Brexit

European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 — UK Parliament

  • Link to the Act as originally enacted
  • Full text of the Bill as introduced and further versions of the Bill as it is reprinted to incorporate amendments (proposals for change) made during its passage through Parliament.
  • Tracked changes versions of the Bill
  • Explanatory Notes
  • Full list of amendment papers relating to the Bill.
  • Public Bill Committee and report stage proceedings
  • House of Commons Library and House of Lords Library briefing papers
  • Will write letters (Questions put to government Ministers during debates on Bills may be answered by the Minister saying 'I will write to the Hon Member'. “Will write” replies are not published in Hansard but are placed in the Library of the House concerned and published on the Parliamentary website.)

European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018
This gives the text of the act as it was originally enacted.


Blog | UK Constitutional Law Association
Affiliated to the International Association of Constitutional Law. The UKCLA blog provides analysis and comment on matters of constitutional law in the UK. Not suprisingly, many of the current blog postings cover some aspect of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act and Brexit..

The Brexit Blog
"Analysing Brexit as it develops". Written by Chris Grey, Professor of Organization Studies at Royal Holloway, University of London and previously a professor at Cambridge University and Warwick University.

Brexit Archives - Jon Worth Euroblog
The personal blog of Jon Worth outlining his views on EU politics, Brexit, German politics, Berlin politics, transport and technology. The link above is to his Brexit articles. He also produces Brexit diagrams ( The current series of diagrams tries to plot what will happen on the UK side between now and the new Brexit deadline in October. The diagrams are based on how MPs have voted in the past, and using opinion polls as a means to predict how MPs and Tory activists will behave in the future.

EU Law Analysis: Guide to Brexit sources
A list of the selected sources on Brexit compiled by Professor Steve Peers, University of Essex. It covers primary sources, selected postings from the EU Law Analysis blog, and other blogs covering Brexit.

The Law and Policy Blog – Independent commentary on law and policy from David Allen Green
David Allen Green is a legal commentator at and a former legal correspondent of the New Statesman. Current postings are mainly about Brexit.

Public Law for Everyone – Professor Mark Elliott
Another source of comment and analysis on the EU (Withdrawal) Bill. Written by Mark Elliott, Professor of Public Law at the University of Cambridge, a Fellow of St Catharine's College, Cambridge, and Legal Adviser to the House of Lords Select Committee on the Constitution. The views expressed on this blog are in a purely personal capacity.

Additional resources

Brexit: a reading list of post-EU Referendum publications by Parliament and the Devolved Assemblies
A reading list from the House of Commons Library bringing together briefings on Brexit by the Parliamentary libraries and the Devolved Assembly research services with reports by Parliamentary and Devolved Assembly committees. Note that this is a list of links to resources and not a summary of the content of the briefings. There are over 40 pages covering various issues, policy areas and industry sectors.

Brexit reading list: no deal - Commons Library Briefing Paper number 8642, 14 August 2019
"This paper provides links to a selection of 2019 publications by private sector organisations, think tanks, research institutes and other academic institutions on a no-deal exit from the EU. The publications selected consider the general political, constitutional and economic implications of a no-deal Brexit rather than its effects in particular sectors."

Brexit Update - Parliamentary Business: Scottish Parliament
Regular updates (PDF newsletter) by the Scottish Parliament's Information Centre (SPICe) on the UK's exit from the EU. Email alerts are available. There is also a timeline showing the "key events in relation to the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union along with the Scottish Parliament's engagement with the process". Links to Brexit related official reports, documents and SPICe publications mentioned in the timeline are provided.

Brexit: Securing Wales' Future |
The White Paper ‘Securing Wales' Future' was launched by the Welsh Government in January 2017. Additional documents have since been published and all are available for download via this page.

Brexit and NI
Information and links to resources on Brexit and Northern Ireland compiled by the Northern Ireland Assmebly's Research and Information Service (RaISe). There is a reading list, a calendar of upcoming Brexit related events and Brexit Research Publications. The Brexit Hubs and Blogs page is especially useful as it includes valuable academic and business resources that might otherwise be missed.

Brexit – House of Commons Library
THe House of Commons Library is an independent research and information service publishing research and analysis on topical issues and legislation. Not surprisingly, Brexit is one of the topics covered. You can sign up by topic to receive eamil alerts every time new research is published.

Brexit: research and analysis - UK Parliament
Research and analysis from the UK Parliament's libraries and committees on how leaving the EU will affect different policy areas in the UK. Email alerts for updates to the page are available.

Petition to Revoke Article 50

A petition to revoke Article 50 and for the UK to remain in the EU was posted on the parliamentary petitions site and was closed on the 20 August 2019.

A map showing how many people have voted by parliamentary constituency is at

The petition data is available for download.



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